behavior cloning publication image
Automated Driving
Machine Learning
Exploring the Limitations of Behavior Cloning for Autonomous Driving

TRI Author: Adrien Gaidon


All Authors: Felipe Codevilla and Eder Santana and Antonio M. López and Adrien Gaidon

Driving requires reacting to a wide variety of complex environment conditions and agent behaviors. Explicitly modeling each possible scenario is unrealistic. In contrast, imitation learning can, in theory, leverage data from large fleets of human-driven cars. Behavior cloning in particular has been successfully used to learn simple visuomotor policies end-to-end, but scaling to the full spectrum of driving behaviors remains an unsolved problem. In this paper, we propose a new benchmark to experimentally investigate the scalability and limitations of behavior cloning. We show that behavior cloning leads to state-of-the-art results, executing complex lateral and longitudinal maneuvers, even in unseen environments, without being explicitly programmed to do so. However, we confirm some limitations of the behavior cloning approach: some well-known limitations (e.g., dataset bias and overfitting), new generalization issues (e.g., dynamic objects and the lack of a causal modeling), and training instabilities, all requiring further research before behavior cloning can graduate to real-world driving. The code, dataset, benchmark, and agent studied in this paper can be found at Read more


Citation: Codevilla, Felipe, Eder Santana, Antonio M. López, and Adrien Gaidon. "Exploring the limitations of behavior cloning for autonomous driving." In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, pp. 9329-9338. 2019.